Category: fashion

Treasured Gemstones Since The Ancient Times

Diamonds have been treasured as gemstones since the ancient times. The popularity of diamonds has risen since the 19th century because of successful advertising in spite of a greatly increased supply. They are not normally used as a mainline store of value during times of crisis, due to their lack of fungibility and low liquidity, but may still be useful during times of hyperinflation. Nearly 20% of mined diamonds are used in jewelry and 80% for industrial uses such as lasers, drill parts and surgical equipment.

Wholesale diamond price has been controlled by the De Beers Group, which has an estimated 40% to 50% of the market. Botswana is currently the largest producer of diamonds with mines operated by Debswana, a joint venture between De Beers and the Botswana government, however, since the 1980s, other producers have developed new mines in Russia, Canada and Australia challenging De Beers’ dominance. The United States is the biggest consumer of diamonds in the world. The U.S. accounts for 35% of diamond sales, Hong Kong 26%, Belgium 15%, Japan 6%, and Israel 4%. The price of diamonds fluctuates with global demand and the world economy.

Diamond prices may vary widely depending on a diamond’s carat, color, clarity and cut, what we call the four C?s factor, although there is no universal world price per gram for diamonds. Numerous institutions have varying standards which can be used to aid in diamond identification and pricing. Gemological Institute of America, American Gemological Society and International Gemological Institute are three such institutions. Some firms offer “investment-grade” diamonds for sale to the public. A prudent investor should ask for a written promise to rebuy the diamonds at or near the purchase price within a specified period. Diamonds may thus be considered as a problematic investment, as it may be easy to buy a diamond, but it is not easy to sell one unless one is already an established diamond merchant.

Another problem for an investor is that purchasers other than established jewelers will be paying retail for a stone but can get only wholesale at most if they sell it back to a jeweler. Today there are a few funds that are investing in diamonds, as these funds purchase unique diamonds which are often very large in size or color, each stone is checked by a few professionals and negotiated until the fund decides to purchase it. Only after this a marketing team goes into action and through an extensive work the fund yield is gained. Grading and certification by recognised laboratories goes some way to redressing this. Colour and clarity grades are parameters which need to be determined by gemologists.

The increasing quality and size, also presents a threat to the value of polished diamonds as a long-term investment. A cautionary example of such a price fall caused by introduction of a new simulant strongly undermining the prices of a natural gem was the permanent fall in natural pearl prices with the introduction of cultured pearls. In part because of the social acceptability of wearing cultured pearls to much of the market, customers migrated from the natural to the lower priced cultured product. There are several factors contributing to low liquidity of diamonds. One of the main is the lack of terminal market. Most commodities have terminal markets, and some form of commodities exchange, clearing house, and central storage facilities. Diamonds are also subject to value added tax in the UK, EU, and sales tax in most developed countries, therefore reducing their effectiveness as an investment medium. Most diamonds are sold through retail stores at very high profit margins. As diamonds in larger sizes become increasingly rare and valuable, any easily visible and readily understood pricing system has been difficult to establish.

Rolex Watch Innovations

Among the company’s innovations are the first self-winding watch; the first waterproof watch case; the first wristwatch with a date on the dial; the first watch to show two timezones at once; and most importantly the first watchmakers to earn the coveted chronometer certification for a wristwatch. To date, Rolex still holds the record for the most certified chronometer movements in the category of wristwatches. Another little known fact is that Rolex participated in the development of the original quartz watch movements. Although Rolex has made very few quartz models for its Oyster line, the company’s engineers were instrumental in design and implementation of the technology during the early 1970s.

The first self-winding Rolex watch was offered to the public in 1931, powered by an internal mechanism that used the movement of the wearer’s arm. This not only made watch-winding unnecessary, but eliminated the problem of over-winding a watch and harming its mechanism. Rolex was also the first watch company to create a truly waterproof watch ? another milestone from novelty to functional timepiece. Wilsdorf even went so far as to have a specially made Rolex watch attached to the side of the Trieste bathyscaphe, which went to the bottom of the Mariana Trench. The watch survived and tested as having kept perfect time during its descent and ascent. This was confirmed by a telegram sent to Rolex the following day saying “Am happy to confirm that even at 11,000 meters your watch is as precise as on the surface. Best regards, Jacques Piccard

Rolex has also made a reputation in watches suitable for the extremes of deep-sea diving, aviation and mountain climbing. Early sports models included the Oyster Perpetual Sea Dweller 2000 (in 1971). This watch featured a helium release valve, co-invented with Swiss watchmaker Doxa, to release helium gas build-up during decompression. Another sports model is the GMT Master, originally developed at the request of Pan Am Airways, to assist pilots in transcontinental flights. The Explorer and Explorer II were developed specifically for explorers who would navigate rough terrain ? such as the world famous Everest Expeditions.

On the more glamorous side, Ian Fleming’s James Bond character wore a Rolex Oyster Perpetual in the series of spy novels. In the early EON production Bond films, Commander Bond wore a Rolex Submariner. However, for the Bond films starring Pierce Brosnan, James Bond’s standard issue watch is an Omega Seamaster. This is due in part to Omega being open to jointly promote their association with the films producers .

Uk Jewellery Market Moves Online

A woman wearing a fabulous dress with sensual shoes and her hair styled to perfection often feels at her very best, a woman can then ruin the whole look with the wrong choice of jewellery. As if the ?rules? for the length of the skirt, the height of the shoes and the colour of lipstick were not enough, women also have to worry about what they should and should not be used to make jewellery work for them.

Using jewellery intelligently does not require an in depth knowledge of fashion. Your choice and use of jewellery tells the world: “I’m not modest and I feel good, enjoy life and I?m feeling great about my appearance.” The main thing to remember is that less is nearly always more. If you are using a thick bracelet and a necklace, forget bling-bling and big earrings you don?t need to wear all your jewellery items at once.

When you want to use large and heavy jewellery, you should avoid clothing with heavy designs they just don?t get along. All-black clothing and all-white flat clothing, is perfect with big jewellery or colourful chunky items. Have fun with trends in coral and turquoise in the summer season. The last thing to remember is that the larger the stone the less real it seems. Big cocktail rings are retro-cool and very fashionable, but resist the temptation to wear them with a lot of other pieces of jewellery that are heavily encrusted, just let the ring is the focal point of your look.

Using gold with gold and silver with silver creates a more traditional look, but true fashion often revolves around a more modern look. The trick is, if you want to mix metals, maintain a similar style of jewellery. A modern gold bracelet does not look good when combined with delicate earrings of platinum or diamonds. This “fashion stacking” lends itself perfectly to a mix of metals, so you can combine rings or bracelets round or square in different shades of gold. You can even use necklaces of gold and silver together for a modern look, because sometimes the rules were made to be broken.

One great area for jewellery that is nearly always overlooked is the hair, especially if have a very full head of hair, designer hair accessories can very much help to enhance the natural beauty of your locks. Also don?t forget your accessories can use their own jewellery accessories to add to their appearance, for example, handbag charms can set of a plain accessory and make it more attractive.